Protect Against 



  • Supports the development of a hookworm vaccine candidate, currently in Phase 2 human clinical testing, that uses AAHI's GLA-AF adjuvant formulation. 

The microscopic hookworm thrives in the soil of warm, moist climates, including many areas that are affected by extreme poverty and poor sanitation. Larvae of the worms are spread from contaminated stool to soil, where they hatch.

Worms then infect people who walk barefoot on contaminated soil, infesting their intestines and causing weight loss, fatigue, and anemia. 


Hookworm is treatable with a one to three day drug regimen. The cost of treatment is dependent on the severity of infection.  But treatment is costly, and difficult to access in low-and middle-income countries.

The only prevention there is, is to wear shoes and avoid eating food that may have been washed in contaminated water. Maintaining good hygiene is also important, but there is no full-proof protection from disease.


1. What It Is

2. Global Burden

Hookworm, a neglected tropical disease, was once widespread in southeastern United States and is now most prevalent in regions of sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and South America. 

Areas of the world with poor infrastructure that cannot afford functional sewer system and outhouses are most burdened by hookworm disease.


3. What AAHI Does About It

AAHI is collaborating with Baylor College of Medicine and partners in Brazil to support hookworm vaccine candidates that deter larvae from latching on and penetrating human skin.  

The vaccine candidate combine a recombinant hookworm proteins, Na-GST-1 or Na-APR-1, with AAHI's GLA-AF adjuvant formulation, and were safe and well-tolerated in Phase 1 clinical trials in Brazil and the United States (NCT01231130, NCT01717950, NCT02476773, and NCT01385198). 

The clinical trial results led to support from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease and George Washington University to conduct an ongoing Phase 2 clinical trial in the U.S. (NCT03172975). 

Latest News